Picture: Equinox Gantt Chart.
Picture: Equinox dissimination poster.
WP1: Production of an iron-based porous preform with three different methods and varying: porosity, particle size, pore size and morphology.
WP2: Infiltration of liquid Al (pressureless and pressure-assisted).
WP3: Modelling the Infiltration dynamics, Kinetics of phase formation, Kinetics of Solid state diffusion.
WP4: Microstructure characterization and Heat treatment.
WP5: Testing of Cavitation erosion, Accelerated low to medium Temperature Corrosion, Mechanical behavior (Room to High Temperature), CNC-machining.
WP6: Building and testing industrial demonstrators (parts of track tensioners, high viscosity pumps, braking rotors, parts for electrolysers.
WP7: Implementation of Safe-by-Design principles and Life Cycle Assessment.
WP8: Dissemination and Exploitation.
Equinox progress via announcements of partners.
Picture: Photo from project progress. Source: Karl Gruber.
Using computational thermodynamics, microstructure simulations and computational fluid dynamics as modelling and simulation tools we obtained deeper understanding of the kinetics of solidification, the formation of intermetallic phases and the dynamics of melt infiltration into the porous preforms. Parameters derived from these theoretical studies led to successful infiltration of iron-aluminum melts into porous iron preforms.Pictures from the centrifugal casting experiments (shown right) indicate excellent infiltration results. The next steps will deal with improving the efficiency of the infiltration and reaction control leading to the desired intermetallic phases
In situ study of the formation of Fe-Al intermetallics during infiltration process.
Successful reactive infiltration of Al melt into Fe porous preforms have been performed for the first time using an experimental combination of x ray radiography and x ray diffraction measurements (Fig. 1). This experiment was dedicated to the investigation of the dynamics of the infiltration of Al into Fe porous preforms and the formation of intermetallic phases during the infiltration. A designed furnace for in-situ infiltration experiments was used at EDDI beamline (BESSY synchrotron, Berlin, Germany). Radiographies and diffraction patterns are recorded for one cycle (from room temperature till cooling after heating Al up to 1000°C). Fig. 2 shows XRD patterns before and after infiltration where reflections corresponding to intermetallic phases were obtained.
Photo: Set-up of the in-situ infiltration experiment at EDDI beamline - BESSY synchrotron, Berlin, Germany.
Photo: (a) Radiography of 2 Fe channels (b) optical micrograph and (c) SEM micrograph after infiltration of Fe preform.
Reactive pressure-assisted infiltration of Iron-Aluminum melts into porous Iron preforms using the suction casting process has been studied by the IMDEA Materials partner (Spain). The IMDEA´s group dealt with a design of the infiltration device and further process parameters tuning (e.g. suction pressure). The additional process parameters used in the experiments were selected on a basis of the calculations of the modelling group of Access e.V. As it can be seen from the images depicted below, a successful infiltration has been performed. For the next step of EQUINOX´s project, a further post heat treatment is foreseen on the infiltrated samples. This will enable a further transformation of the obtained phases into desired ultrafine intermetallic phases.
Photo: (b) Vermiculite crucible in a two different geometries, that is, cylindrical (left) and square(right) shapes.
Photo: (c) A snapshot of a section of infiltrated porous Selective Laser Melting –made Iron preform using Iron-Aluminum melts is depicted in picture.
Equinox progress via announcements of partners.
Picture: Photo from project progress. Source: Pavel Hanus.
In the period of February-2016 to January 2017 TUL team investigated the Fe preforms before infiltration by scanning electron microscopy using secondary electron (SE) and back scaterred electron (BSE) imaging (as can be seen in figures 1,2). The porosity of preforms by means of image analysis was also studied.
Photo: TUL started first preliminary annealing experiments on the small parts of both types of received infiltrerated samples (Al and FeAl2)
Photo: The structure investigation of infiltradted samples was performed on samples made in Access. The research was focused on the samples infiltrated by pure Aluminium (casted into pre-heated Fe matrix and also casted without pre-heating) and by FeAl2. The electron microscop equipped by energy dispersive analysis was used for phase identification.
Photo: TUL team investigated the Fe preforms before infiltration by high-tech experimental device Gleeble 3500. There is crossectional dilatometer for CTE evaluation in figure.
CNC milling is probably one of the most important operations in subsequent machining of Equinox material. Milling experiments help us to find proper cutting parameters and tool qualities. We performed milling experiments on a 5axis milling machine (Mikron 710 CP)starting with reference materials to evaluate best cutting conditions. We used a variety of mills and different cooling strategies. For each mill varied the milling parameters cutting speed, feed, side feed, tooth feed andinspected the tools after certain cutting times for erosion phenomena on the cutting edges. The quality of the milled surface and the tools were checked after each milling experiment and documented. After having identified proper mills and milling conditions we used these parameters for milling Equinox materials. We started with infiltrated samples not heat treated from Access and continued with heat treated Equinox material from TUL.
1) Manufacturing of extra batch of 20 SLM cylindrical mold samples.
2) Studying of microstructure of manufactured samples obtained by different methods to define the optimum modes of liquid aluminum in filtration:
1. SLM preforms. 2. obtained by powder metallurgy method. 3. compressed iron turnings
3) Actions on development and optimizing of joint pipe 3D-model based on the results of WP1 (porousmatrixes), WP2, WP3 (infiltration) and WP4 (microstructure andpost heattreatment).